Marie-Louise Hammarskjöld


  • MS, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
  • PhD, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
  • BS, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
  • MD, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Postdoc, SUNY at Stony Brook

Primary Appointment

  • Professor, Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology


Research Interest(s)

Post Transcriptional Gene Regulation and the Molecular Biology of Human Retroviruses

Research Description

Many mammalian and viral genes are alternatively spliced and subject to regulation at the post- transcriptional level. However, relatively little is known about the cellular mechanisms for this regulation. We are using retroviruses as model systems to elucidate these mechanisms. Some of our studies focus on HIV Rev, an essential HIV protein. Rev mediates the nucleo-cytoplasmic export of unspliced and incompletely spliced HIV RNAs and provides an important HIV drug target. Another major focus of the laboratory is the function of the constitutive transport element (CTE).

The CTE interacts directly with host cell proteins to facilitate export of intron containing RNA. We are currently analyzing the function of cellular proteins that are involved in the CTE mediated export pathway. One is NXF1 (TAP), a protein which has been proposed to play an essential role in cellular mRNA export. A second protein under study is NXT1, an important TAP cofactor. CTE function is also enhanced by SAM68, a major target of Src and Src family kinases and a potential tumor suppressor. Our studies are aimed at identifying the mechanism by which SAM68 promotes CTE function and the role that this protein plays in cellular gene regulation.

Selected Publications

  • Sloan E, Kearney M, Gray L, Anastos K, Daar E, Margolick J, Maldarelli F, Hammarskjold M, Rekosh D. Limited nucleotide changes in the Rev response element (RRE) during HIV-1 infection alter overall Rev-RRE activity and Rev multimerization. Journal of virology. 2013;87(20): 11173-86. PMID: 23926352 | PMCID: PMC3807272
  • Coyle J, Bor Y, Rekosh D, Hammarskjold M. The Tpr protein regulates export of mRNAs with retained introns that traffic through the Nxf1 pathway. RNA (New York, N.Y.). 2011;17(7): 1344-56. PMID: 21613532 | PMCID: PMC3138570
  • Shuck-Lee D, Chang H, Sloan E, Hammarskjold M, Rekosh D. Single-nucleotide changes in the HIV Rev-response element mediate resistance to compounds that inhibit Rev function. Journal of virology. 2011;85(8): 3940-9. PMID: 21289114 | PMCID: PMC3126119
  • Shuck-Lee D, Chen F, Willard R, Raman S, Ptak R, Hammarskjold M, Rekosh D. Heterocyclic compounds that inhibit Rev-RRE function and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2008;52(9): 3169-79. PMID: 18625767 | PMCID: PMC2533482
  • Ward A, Rekosh D, Hammarskjold M. Trafficking through the Rev/RRE pathway is essential for efficient inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by an antisense RNA derived from the envelope gene. Journal of virology. 2008;83(2): 940-52. PMID: 18971264 | PMCID: PMC2612364
  • Swartz J, Bor Y, Misawa Y, Rekosh D, Hammarskjold M. The shuttling SR protein 9G8 plays a role in translation of unspliced mRNA containing a constitutive transport element. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2007;282(27): 19844-53. PMID: 17513303
  • Bor Y, Swartz J, Morrison A, Rekosh D, Ladomery M, Hammarskjöld M. The Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) gene (+KTS isoform) functions with a CTE to enhance translation from an unspliced RNA with a retained intron. Genes & development. 2006;20(12): 1597-608. PMID: 16738405 | PMCID: PMC1482480
  • Li Y, Bor Y, Misawa Y, Xue Y, Rekosh D, Hammarskjöld M. An intron with a constitutive transport element is retained in a Tap messenger RNA. Nature. 2006;443(7108): 234-7. PMID: 16971948
  • Olivieri K, Scoggins R, Bor Y, Matthews A, Mark D, Taylor J, Chernauskas D, Hammarskjöld M, Rekosh D, Camerini D. The envelope gene is a cytopathic determinant of CCR5 tropic HIV-1. Virology. 2006;358(1): 23-38. PMID: 16999983