Erik L. Hewlett


  • BA, Westminster College, Missouri
  • MD, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Primary Appointment

  • Professor, Medicine- Infectious Diseases and International Health


Research Interest(s)

Structure and Function of Bacterial Toxins: Roles in Microbial Pathogenesis and Uses in Biomedical Research

Research Description

Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium which causes pertussis or whooping cough, produces several protein toxins which modifiy the functions of host cells. The two of these which are the focus of our research are: a) adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) and b) pertussis toxin (PT). Both are key virulence factors in the disease of pertussis, protective antigens in eliciting immunity in animal models and toxins with novel effects on target cells.

ACT is a 177kd protein possessing a calmodulin-activated adenylate cyclase enzymatic domain which is delivered to the cytosol of target cells, resulting in supraphysiologic cyclic AMP levels. The toxin must be acylated and bind multiple calcium atoms in order to be active. In the course of its interaction with target cells, it creates a transmembrane pore which allows efflux of intracellular K+ and for some erythrocytes, it is hemolytic. Current work is directed at defining the structure of ACT and the effect of acylation and the calcium-induced conformational change on toxin activities. The nature of ACT's interaction with the bacterial outer membrane including its membrane associated proteins, and the process by which the toxin is transferred to the host cell are focal points in a new direction of this research. ACT localization on the surface of the producing organism, B. pertussis, and its delivery to target cells from that site is a project leading to greater emphasis on the toxin's role in pathogenesis of pertussis.

PT is a heteropentamer and a member of the family of ADP-ribosylation protein toxins. Its target molecules are some of the heterotrimeric G proteins such as Gi and Gt', and the result of their modification by PT is inhibition of G protein-mediated signal transduction. Despite its clear importance in clinical pertussis, the target tissue for PT in the disease process is unknown, thus impairing understanding of disease pathophysiology. Current studies include cellular effects of PT in vitro and in vivo, and evaluation of its consequences in patients with pertussis.

Selected Publications

  • D'Auria K, Kolling G, Donato G, Warren C, Gray M, Hewlett E, Papin J. In vivo physiological and transcriptional profiling reveals host responses to Clostridium difficile toxin A and toxin B. Infection and immunity. 2013;81(10): 3814-24. PMID: 23897615
  • Eby J, Gray M, Warfel J, Paddock C, Jones T, Day S, Bowden J, Poulter M, Donato G, Merkel T, Hewlett E. Quantification of the adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis in vitro and during respiratory infection. Infection and immunity. 2013;81(5): 1390-8. PMID: 23429530 | PMCID: PMC3648026
  • Masin J, Fiser R, Linhartova I, Osicka R, Bumba L, Hewlett E, Benz R, Sebo P. Differences in Purinergic Amplification of Osmotic Cell Lysis by the Pore-Forming RTX Toxins Bordetella pertussis CyaA and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxIA: The Role of Pore Size. Infection and immunity. 2013. PMID: 24082076
  • Chavali A, D'Auria K, Hewlett E, Pearson R, Papin J. A metabolic network approach for the identification and prioritization of antimicrobial drug targets. Trends in microbiology. 2012;20(3): 113-23. PMID: 22300758 | PMCID: PMC3299924
  • D'Auria K, Donato G, Gray M, Kolling G, Warren C, Cave L, Solga M, Lannigan J, Papin J, Hewlett E. Systems analysis of the transcriptional response of human ileocecal epithelial cells to Clostridium difficile toxins and effects on cell cycle control. BMC systems biology. 2012;6 2. PMID: 22225989 | PMCID: PMC3266197
  • Donato G, Goldsmith C, Paddock C, Eby J, Gray M, Hewlett E. Delivery of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin to target cells via outer membrane vesicles. FEBS letters. 2012;586(4): 459-65. PMID: 22289177 | PMCID: PMC3288663
  • Henderson M, Inatsuka C, Sheets A, Williams C, Benaron D, Donato G, Gray M, Hewlett E, Cotter P. Contribution of Bordetella filamentous hemagglutinin and adenylate cyclase toxin to suppression and evasion of interleukin-17-mediated inflammation. Infection and immunity. 2012;80(6): 2061-75. PMID: 22473603 | PMCID: PMC3370597
  • Eby J, Gray M, Mangan A, Donato G, Hewlett E. Role of CD11b/CD18 in the process of intoxication by the adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis. Infection and immunity. 2011;80(2): 850-9. PMID: 22144488 | PMCID: PMC3264305
  • Eby J, Ciesla W, Hamman W, Donato G, Pickles R, Hewlett E, Lencer W. Selective translocation of the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin across the basolateral membranes of polarized epithelial cells. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2010;285(14): 10662-70. PMID: 20139088 | PMCID: PMC2856274
  • Gray M, Hewlett E. Cell cycle arrest induced by the bacterial adenylate cyclase toxins from Bacillus anthracis and Bordetella pertussis. Cellular microbiology. 2010;13(1): 123-34. PMID: 20946259
  • Tondella M, Carlone G, Messonnier N, Quinn C, Meade B, Burns D, Cherry J, Guiso N, Hewlett E, Edwards K, Xing D, Giammanco A, Wirsing von K├Ânig C, Han L, Hueston L, Robbins J, Powell M, Mink C, Poolman J, Hildreth S, Lynn F, Morris A. International Bordetella pertussis assay standardization and harmonization meeting report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 19-20 July 2007. Vaccine. 2008;27(6): 803-14. PMID: 19071179
  • Perkins D, Gray M, Hewlett E, Vogel S. Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) induces cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in murine macrophages and is facilitated by ACT interaction with CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1). Molecular microbiology. 2007;66(4): 1003-15. PMID: 17927697
  • Easley C, Karlinsey J, Bienvenue J, Legendre L, Roper M, Feldman S, Hughes M, Hewlett E, Merkel T, Ferrance J, Landers J. A fully integrated microfluidic genetic analysis system with sample-in-answer-out capability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006;103(51): 19272-7. PMID: 17159153 | PMCID: PMC1748216
  • Hewlett E, Donato G, Gray M. Macrophage cytotoxicity produced by adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis: more than just making cyclic AMP! Molecular microbiology. 2006;59(2): 447-59. PMID: 16390441
  • Mehlmann L, Kalinowski R, Ross L, Parlow A, Hewlett E, Jaffe L. Meiotic resumption in response to luteinizing hormone is independent of a Gi family G protein or calcium in the mouse oocyte. Developmental biology. 2006;299(2): 345-55. PMID: 16949564 | PMCID: PMC1864934
  • Donato G, Hsia H, Green C, Hewlett E. Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) from Bordetella hinzii: characterization and differences from ACT of Bordetella pertussis. Journal of bacteriology. 2005;187(22): 7579-88. PMID: 16267282 | PMCID: PMC1280298