- BS, University of York, England
- PhD, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London
- Associate Professor, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics
- Phone: 434-243-6752
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Regulation of Gene Expression and Development by Transcriptional Repressors
Our main area of study is the regulation of gene expression by transcriptional repressors. We are particularly interested in how transcriptional corepressors control mammalian development and regulate cell cycle progression. We focus on two related corepressor proteins called Tgif1 and Tgif2. The major way in which Tgifs regulate gene expression is through recruitment to DNA via other DNA bound transcription factors. Once recruited to DNA Tgifs will inhibit gene expression, and their function appears to be to limit transcriptional activation in response to specific signaling pathways.
Activation of gene expression by transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) is the best studied target of the Tgifs. The gene responses activated by TGFß family signaling underlie many developmental and proliferative responses in mammalian cells. For example, perturbation of TGFß signaling due to mutations in components of the signal transduction pathway contributes to numerous human cancers. In response to TGFß signaling, Smad transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus, where they activate target gene expression. Tgifs compete with transcriptional coactivators for Smad interaction, and recruit corepressors to limit the activation of TGFß/Smad target genes.
Our recent work has demonstrated that Tgif1 can also be recruited to DNA indirectly via interaction with the RXR nuclear receptor. RXR is a partner for many other nuclear receptors, including retinoic acid receptors, and Tgif1 represses a subset of nuclear receptor targets, including genes which are responsive to retinoic acid. We are currently examining the role of Tgif1 in other RXR-dependent nuclear receptor signaling pathways.
At present, we are continuing to analyze the mechanism by which Tgifs function, using standard biochemical approaches. We are also attempting to identify, more globally, which genes are regulated by Tgifs using expression microarray technology, and testing recruitment of Tgifs, and associated corepressors, to target genes.
In humans, heterozygous mutations in TGIF result in holoprosencephaly, a prevalent genetic disorder affecting craniofacial development. To examine the in vivo functions of Tgifs, we have created mouse knock-outs of both Tgif and Tgif2. Complete loss of both Tgifs results in gastrulation defects and embryonic lethality, and we are trying to understand how Tgifs regulate early embryonic development. In addition, we are using conditional mutations to study Tgif function later during embryogenesis, and to determine how mutation of Tgifs causes holoprosencephaly.
- Melhuish T, Wotton D. The interaction of the carboxyl terminus-binding protein with the Smad corepressor TGIF is disrupted by a holoprosencephaly mutation in TGIF. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2000;275(50): 39762-6. PMID: 10995736
- Wotton D, Massagué J. Smad transcriptional corepressors in TGF beta family signaling. Current topics in microbiology and immunology. 2001;254 145-64. PMID: 11190572
- Hyman C, Bartholin L, Newfeld S, Wotton D. Drosophila TGIF proteins are transcriptional activators. Molecular and cellular biology. 2003;23(24): 9262-74. PMID: 14645536 | PMCID: PMC309625
- Kagey M, Melhuish T, Wotton D. The polycomb protein Pc2 is a SUMO E3. Cell. 2003;113(1): 127-37. PMID: 12679040
- Kagey M, Melhuish T, Powers S, Wotton D. Multiple activities contribute to Pc2 E3 function. The EMBO journal. 2004;24(1): 108-19. PMID: 15592428 | PMCID: PMC544918
- Massagué J, Seoane J, Wotton D. Smad transcription factors. Genes & development. 2005;19(23): 2783-810. PMID: 16322555
- El-Jaick K, Powers S, Bartholin L, Myers K, Hahn J, Orioli I, Ouspenskaia M, Lacbawan F, Roessler E, Wotton D, Muenke M. Functional analysis of mutations in TGIF associated with holoprosencephaly. Molecular genetics and metabolism. 2006;90(1): 97-111. PMID: 16962354 | PMCID: PMC1820763
- Takaesu N, Hyman-Walsh C, Ye Y, Wisotzkey R, Stinchfield M, O'connor M, Wotton D, Newfeld S. dSno facilitates baboon signaling in the Drosophila brain by switching the affinity of Medea away from Mad and toward dSmad2. Genetics. 2006;174(3): 1299-313. PMID: 16951053 | PMCID: PMC1667060
- Bartholin L, Powers S, Melhuish T, Lasse S, Weinstein M, Wotton D. TGIF inhibits retinoid signaling. Molecular and cellular biology. 2006;26(3): 990-1001. PMID: 16428452 | PMCID: PMC1347013
- Melhuish T, Wotton D. The Tgif2 gene contains a retained intron within the coding sequence. BMC molecular biology. 2006;7 2. PMID: 16436215 | PMCID: PMC1402312
- Wotton D, Merrill J. Pc2 and SUMOylation. Biochemical Society transactions. 2007;35 1401-4. PMID: 18031231
- Chung D, Honda K, Cafuir L, McDuffie M, Wotton D. The Runx3 distal transcript encodes an additional transcriptional activation domain. The FEBS journal. 2007;274(13): 3429-39. PMID: 17555522
- Bartholin L, Melhuish T, Powers S, Goddard-Léon S, Treilleux I, Sutherland A, Wotton D. Maternal Tgif is required for vascularization of the embryonic placenta. Developmental biology. 2008;319(2): 285-97. PMID: 18508043 | PMCID: PMC2517231
- Powers S, Taniguchi K, Yen W, Melhuish T, Shen J, Walsh C, Sutherland A, Wotton D. Tgif1 and Tgif2 regulate Nodal signaling and are required for gastrulation. Development (Cambridge, England). 2009;137(2): 249-59. PMID: 20040491 | PMCID: PMC2799159
- Melhuish T, Chung D, Bjerke G, Wotton D. Tgif1 represses apolipoprotein gene expression in liver. Journal of cellular biochemistry. 2010;111(2): 380-90. PMID: 20506222 | PMCID: PMC2939915
- Vincent D, Kaniewski B, Powers S, Havenar-Daughton C, Marie J, Wotton D, Bartholin L. A rapid strategy to detect the recombined allele in LSL-TβRICA transgenic mice. Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000). 2010;48(9): 559-62. PMID: 20645310 | PMCID: PMC2944915
- Quijano J, Stinchfield M, Zerlanko B, Gibbens Y, Takaesu N, Hyman-Walsh C, Wotton D, Newfeld S. The Sno oncogene antagonizes Wingless signaling during wing development in Drosophila. PloS one. 2010;5(7): e11619. PMID: 20661280 | PMCID: PMC2905394
- Hyman-Walsh C, Bjerke G, Wotton D. An autoinhibitory effect of the homothorax domain of Meis2. The FEBS journal. 2010;277(12): 2584-97. PMID: 20553494
- Merrill J, Kagey M, Melhuish T, Powers S, Zerlanko B, Wotton D. Inhibition of CtBP1 activity by Akt-mediated phosphorylation. Journal of molecular biology. 2010;398(5): 657-71. PMID: 20361981 | PMCID: PMC2866129
- Merrill J, Melhuish T, Kagey M, Yang S, Sharrocks A, Wotton D. A role for non-covalent SUMO interaction motifs in Pc2/CBX4 E3 activity. PloS one. 2010;5(1): e8794. PMID: 20098713 | PMCID: PMC2808386
- Bjerke G, Hyman-Walsh C, Wotton D. Cooperative transcriptional activation by Klf4, Meis2, and Pbx1. Molecular and cellular biology. 2011;31(18): 3723-33. PMID: 21746878 | PMCID: PMC3165729
- TGF-β drives DNA demethylation. Molecular cell. 2012;46(5): 556-7. PMID: 22681884
- Zerlanko B, Bartholin L, Melhuish T, Wotton D. Premature senescence and increased TGFβ signaling in the absence of Tgif1. PloS one. 2012;7(4): e35460. PMID: 22514746 | PMCID: PMC3325954
- Taniguchi K, Anderson A, Sutherland A, Wotton D. Loss of Tgif function causes holoprosencephaly by disrupting the SHH signaling pathway. PLoS genetics. 2012;8(2): e1002524. PMID: 22383895 | PMCID: PMC3285584