Bradley Gelfand


  • PhD, University of Virginia
  • BS, University of Iowa

Primary Appointment

  • Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmology


Research Interest(s)

Blinding disease age-related macular degeneration, utilizing the tools of immunology, molecular biology, and engineering.

Research Description

One major focus of our work is to study the cellular and molecular consequences of the blood supply in the eye. Specifically, we are interested in quantifying the biomechanical changes that occur in the choroidal vasculature in healthy and diseased eyes, and how these micro-environmental cues affect the biology and pathology of the eye. To accomplish this, we perform high-resolution 3-D microscopy to generate accurate maps of the human choroidal anatomy in health and in disease which is utilized for computational fluid dynamic modeling. To study the influence of choroidal hemodynamics on ocular health, we employ a sophisticated cell culture system which is capable of reproducing the hemodynamic environment of the human eye.

Selected Publications

  • Kerur N, Fukuda S, Banerjee D, Kim Y, Fu D, Apicella I, Varshney A, Yasuma R, Fowler B, Baghdasaryan E, Marion K, Huang X, Yasuma T, Hirano Y, Serbulea V, Ambati M, Ambati V, Kajiwara Y, Ambati K, Hirahara S, Bastos-Carvalho A, Ogura Y, Terasaki H, Oshika T, Kim K, Hinton D, Leitinger N, Cambier J, Buxbaum J, Kenney M, Jazwinski S, Nagai H, Hara I, West A, Fitzgerald K, Sadda S, Gelfand B, Ambati J. cGAS drives noncanonical-inflammasome activation in age-related macular degeneration. Nature medicine. 2017. PMID: 29176737 | PMCID: PMC5760363
  • Bogdanovich S, Kim Y, Mizutani T, Yasuma R, Tudisco L, Cicatiello V, Bastos-Carvalho A, Kerur N, Hirano Y, Baffi J, Tarallo V, Li S, Yasuma T, Arpitha P, Fowler B, Wright C, Apicella I, Greco A, Brunetti A, Ruvo M, Sandomenico A, Nozaki M, Ijima R, Kaneko H, Ogura Y, Terasaki H, Ambati B, Leusen J, Langdon W, Clark M, Armour K, Bruhns P, Verbeek J, Gelfand B, De Falco S, Ambati J. Human IgG1 antibodies suppress angiogenesis in a target-independent manner. Signal transduction and targeted therapy. 2016;1. PMID: 26918197 | PMCID: PMC4763941
  • Gelfand B, Ambati J. A Revised Hemodynamic Theory of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Trends in molecular medicine. 2016;22(8): 656-70. PMID: 27423265 | PMCID: PMC4969140
  • Yasuma R, Cicatiello V, Mizutani T, Tudisco L, Kim Y, Tarallo V, Bogdanovich S, Hirano Y, Kerur N, Li S, Yasuma T, Fowler B, Wright C, Apicella I, Greco A, Brunetti A, Ambati B, Helmers S, Lundberg I, Viklicky O, Leusen J, Verbeek J, Gelfand B, Bastos-Carvalho A, De Falco S, Ambati J. Intravenous immune globulin suppresses angiogenesis in mice and humans. Signal transduction and targeted therapy. 2016;1. PMID: 26925256 | PMCID: PMC4768485
  • Gelfand B, Wright C, Kim Y, Yasuma T, Yasuma R, Li S, Fowler B, Bastos-Carvalho A, Kerur N, Uittenbogaard A, Han Y, Lou D, Kleinman M, McDonald W, Núñez G, Georgel P, Dunaief J, Ambati J. Iron Toxicity in the Retina Requires Alu RNA and the NLRP3 Inflammasome. Cell reports. 2015;11(11): 1686-93. PMID: 26074074 | PMCID: PMC4481133
  • Mizutani T, Fowler B, Kim Y, Yasuma R, Krueger L, Gelfand B, Ambati J. Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Suppress Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in Mice. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2015;56(12): 7122-9. PMID: 26529046 | PMCID: PMC4634627
  • Fowler B, Gelfand B, Kim Y, Kerur N, Tarallo V, Hirano Y, Amarnath S, Fowler D, Radwan M, Young M, Pittman K, Kubes P, Agarwal H, Parang K, Hinton D, Bastos-Carvalho A, Li S, Yasuma T, Mizutani T, Yasuma R, Wright C, Ambati J. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors possess intrinsic anti-inflammatory activity. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2014;346(6212): 1000-3. PMID: 25414314 | PMCID: PMC4274127
  • Hirano Y, Yasuma T, Mizutani T, Fowler B, Tarallo V, Yasuma R, Kim Y, Bastos-Carvalho A, Kerur N, Gelfand B, Bogdanovich S, He S, Zhang X, Nozaki M, Ijima R, Kaneko H, Ogura Y, Terasaki H, Nagai H, Haro I, Núñez G, Ambati B, Hinton D, Ambati J. IL-18 is not therapeutic for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Nature medicine. 2014;20(12): 1372-5. PMID: 25473914 | PMCID: PMC4275546
  • Kim Y, Tarallo V, Kerur N, Yasuma T, Gelfand B, Bastos-Carvalho A, Hirano Y, Yasuma R, Mizutani T, Fowler B, Li S, Kaneko H, Bogdanovich S, Ambati B, Hinton D, Hauswirth W, Hakem R, Wright C, Ambati J. DICER1/Alu RNA dysmetabolism induces Caspase-8-mediated cell death in age-related macular degeneration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014;111(45): 16082-7. PMID: 25349431 | PMCID: PMC4234570
  • Ambati J, Atkinson J, Gelfand B. Immunology of age-related macular degeneration. Nature reviews. Immunology. 2013;13(6): 438-51. PMID: 23702979 | PMCID: PMC3941009
  • Feaver R, Gelfand B, Blackman B. Human haemodynamic frequency harmonics regulate the inflammatory phenotype of vascular endothelial cells. Nature communications. 2013;4 1525. PMID: 23443553 | PMCID: PMC4100071
  • Kerur N, Hirano Y, Tarallo V, Fowler B, Bastos-Carvalho A, Yasuma T, Yasuma R, Kim Y, Hinton D, Kirschning C, Gelfand B, Ambati J. TLR-independent and P2X7-dependent signaling mediate Alu RNA-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in geographic atrophy. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2013;54(12): 7395-401. PMID: 24114535 | PMCID: PMC3825570
  • Dridi S, Hirano Y, Tarallo V, Kim Y, Fowler B, Ambati B, Bogdanovich S, Chiodo V, Hauswirth W, Kugel J, Goodrich J, Ponicsan S, Hinton D, Kleinman M, Baffi J, Gelfand B, Ambati J. ERK1/2 activation is a therapeutic target in age-related macular degeneration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2012;109(34): 13781-6. PMID: 22869729 | PMCID: PMC3427082
  • Tarallo V, Hirano Y, Gelfand B, Dridi S, Kerur N, Kim Y, Cho W, Kaneko H, Fowler B, Bogdanovich S, Albuquerque R, Hauswirth W, Chiodo V, Kugel J, Goodrich J, Ponicsan S, Chaudhuri G, Murphy M, Dunaief J, Ambati B, Ogura Y, Yoo J, Lee D, Provost P, Hinton D, Núñez G, Baffi J, Kleinman M, Ambati J. DICER1 loss and Alu RNA induce age-related macular degeneration via the NLRP3 inflammasome and MyD88. Cell. 2012;149(4): 847-59. PMID: 22541070 | PMCID: PMC3351582
  • Gelfand B, Meller J, Pryor A, Kahn M, Bortz P, Wamhoff B, Blackman B. Hemodynamic activation of beta-catenin and T-cell-specific transcription factor signaling in vascular endothelium regulates fibronectin expression. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2011;31(7): 1625-33. PMID: 21527747 | PMCID: PMC3134525
  • Kaneko H, Dridi S, Tarallo V, Gelfand B, Fowler B, Cho W, Kleinman M, Ponicsan S, Hauswirth W, Chiodo V, Karikó K, Yoo J, Lee D, Hadziahmetovic M, Song Y, Misra S, Chaudhuri G, Buaas F, Braun R, Hinton D, Zhang Q, Grossniklaus H, Provis J, Madigan M, Milam A, Justice N, Albuquerque R, Blandford A, Bogdanovich S, Hirano Y, Witta J, Fuchs E, Littman D, Ambati B, Rudin C, Chong M, Provost P, Kugel J, Goodrich J, Dunaief J, Baffi J, Ambati J. DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration. Nature. 2011;471(7338): 325-30. PMID: 21297615 | PMCID: PMC3077055
  • Kleinman M, Kaneko H, Cho W, Dridi S, Fowler B, Blandford A, Albuquerque R, Hirano Y, Terasaki H, Kondo M, Fujita T, Ambati B, Tarallo V, Gelfand B, Bogdanovich S, Baffi J, Ambati J. Short-interfering RNAs induce retinal degeneration via TLR3 and IRF3. Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. 2011;20(1): 101-8. PMID: 21988875 | PMCID: PMC3255577
  • Feaver R, Gelfand B, Wang C, Schwartz M, Blackman B. Atheroprone hemodynamics regulate fibronectin deposition to create positive feedback that sustains endothelial inflammation. Circulation research. 2010;106(11): 1703-11. PMID: 20378855 | PMCID: PMC2891748
  • Harry B, Sanders J, Feaver R, Lansey M, Deem T, Zarbock A, Bruce A, Pryor A, Gelfand B, Blackman B, Schwartz M, Ley K. Endothelial cell PECAM-1 promotes atherosclerotic lesions in areas of disturbed flow in ApoE-deficient mice. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2008;28(11): 2003-8. PMID: 18688018 | PMCID: PMC2651147
  • Gelfand B, Epstein F, Blackman B. Spatial and spectral heterogeneity of time-varying shear stress profiles in the carotid bifurcation by phase-contrast MRI. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. 2006;24(6): 1386-92. PMID: 17083089